Surnames developed from nicknames and bynames which were given to identify different people who had the same first name. These second names usually either described what you did, or who your dad was or where you lived. Sometimes they just described what you looked like.
In Scotland Mac meant son, they put it before the fathers name for the son of e.g. MacDonald means the son of Donald. In England John’s son became know as Johnson.
Names like Smith came from black smiths, Baker from bakers..etc. Le Plastriers means plaster seller. So we can guess our ancester sold plaster.
Through surnames there is only so far we can trace back, firstly the records do not exist and secondly the names do not exist.
But there is one more way and that is D.N.A!